Mischa Park-Doob
European History
December 20, 1994
Mrs. Manski

........Ever since the eighth century, Muslims and Christians in what is now Spain had lived in relative harmony with their Jewish neighbors. Then, as most of Spain came under exclusively Christian rule in the fourteenth century, the attitude towards Jews changed for the worse. What was once a diverse and tolerant society became a kingdom renowned for religious intolerance and racial persecution, culminating in the 1492 edict signed by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella that forced the 200,000 or so Spanish Jews either to leave the country forever or convert to Christianity.1 In the following pages I will discuss the events leading up to this drastic decision by describing the Spanish cultural background which eventually led to social conflicts, the factors which influenced the decisions made by Ferdinand and Isabella, and the role of the Spanish Inquisition with respect to its effect on Spanish Jews.

Cultural Background

........Jews and Christians of the Iberian Peninsula, the square-shaped land that includes Spain and Portugal today, had lived together in relative peace since the Invasion of the Visigoths in the fifth century, the end of Roman rule in Spain.2 After the barbarian Visigoths converted to Christianity they treated the diverse population with tolerance, and it was not until the end of the sixth century that the rulers encouraged persecution of Jews because of pressure from the Church in Rome. This was the first large-scale persecution, and several fanatical rulers began expelling or forcefully converting Jews. When it became clear at the beginning of the eighth century that the Moors, an Islamic people, would invade the Iberian peninsula from North Africa, the Visigoths suspected the Jews of collaborating with the Muslim enemy. Many Jews were murdered or made slaves by the Visigoths and thus most welcomed the Moorish invasion.3

........The Arab (Moorish) conquest in 711 ended the Visigothic rule as well as the mood of cultural intolerance.4 The Moors rarely mistreated Jews or Christians because Judaism and Christianity were considered stages on the way to Islam.5 In this peaceful atmosphere, except for a short period during the twelfth century when fanatical Muslim rulers treated Christians and Jews badly, there was a gradual accumulation of knowledge. The Moors made advancements in the sciences, poetry, and philosophy that the Muslims of Persia and elsewhere had been developing for hundreds of years, and influenced by their rulers, many Jews also became students in these fields.6

........This time of great learning under Muslim rule from the tenth through thirteenth centuries is known as the Golden Age of Spain. The city of Córdoba became the center of learning for all of Europe, and huge gains in architecture and science were made. Several Jews held very pivotal positions in this society; the fact that Jewish scholars particularly excelled in medicine and other sciences allowed them to ascend to important positions in royal courts.7 Jewish literature and religious studies also flourished–most of the leading Jewish men had not only important professions but were also learned in Jewish Law, poetry, philosophy, and grammar.8 Several royal charters guaranteed the right of Jews to work and trade freely anywhere in the entire nation of Islam, from the Atlantic Ocean to the eastern border of Persia.9

........After the Muslim invasion in the year 711, there were still a few very small Christian kingdoms in the far north of Spain. As the Moorish kingdom's power in the north gradually declined, the Christian kingdoms slowly acquired more land, pushing the border south little by little. This slow process was called the Reconquista, or reconquest, and lasted almost 800 years. As Castile and Aragon, the two major Spanish kingdoms, extended their borders southward they took over the rich society the Moors left behind. At the beginning of the Reconquista, the Christians were harsh to Jews and Muslims but, in a short time, they dropped their Visigothic beliefs and the same prosperous conditions of Moorish Spain prevailed in the north.10

........Later, when Spanish and Portuguese navigators were setting out on great voyages at the beginning of the Age of Exploration, the work of Jewish scholars in cartography and astronomy was especially important. In 1377 a "world map" was finished by the Majorcan Jewish cartographer Abraham Cresques and his son Judah and was given to Pedro IV, King of Aragon (the easternmost kingdom on the Spanish peninsula). The map was regarded as such an important piece of work that, in 1381, a copy was sent to king Charles VI of France.11 After his father's death, Judah became Royal Cartographer of Aragon (converting to Christianity and changing his name in 1391, after the tragic events of that year that will be described later in this paper) and later served as map-maker for Portuguese Prince Henry the Navigator, a sponsor of many voyages of exploration. Another important Jewish figure was the great astronomer Abraham ben-Samuel Zacuto (1452-1515) of Salamanca. He was a professor at the University of Salamanca, and his works include a major astronomical textbook, the invention of a highly accurate copper astrolabe, and much improved astronomical tables and maritime charts which were employed by Christopher Columbus to cross the Atlantic and by Vasco da Gama in his voyage around Africa to reach India.12

........A principal goal of Christian Spain was to recapture territory lost during the Muslim invasion, and Jews played a very important role in this effort. As in Moorish Spain, many Jews held pivotal roles in society as physicians, money-lenders, merchants, tax collectors, and treasury officials, as well as the less prominent occupations of traders and craftsmen.13

........Jews as a whole had a higher place in society than Christians. One reason for this was that they had a much higher literacy rate, due to stronger community support for education.14 During much of this time Jews all over Europe were pretty much left alone by the Church and excluded from the feudalistic system. This isolation actually made Jews more free than most Christians, and they were able to pursue finer careers than those of serfs bound to their manors.15 Later, with the advent of the Dominican order of monks, the Church put much more pressure on the Christians of Europe to persecute Jews. Until about the fourteenth century, however, most Spanish rulers only pretended to go along with the Church by making fake laws and edicts that officially limited the rights of Jews, and then continuing to protect their interests out of economic necessity.16

........Perhaps the most important role of Jews in Spain with relation to Christians and Muslims was that they were natural intermediaries between the other two peoples. Many Jewish scholars could speak, read, and write Castilian (Spanish), Arabic, and Latin. There were a great many textbooks and works of Greece and Persia, including those of Aristotle and Euclid and a great many Arab scholars, that existed only in Arabic. The multi-lingual Jewish scholars were extremely important in bringing this vast store of knowledge to the rest of Latin speaking Europe.17 On a more basic level, the Jewish society still had many traits common to both Christian and Muslim society. Shared characteristics with Christians included monogamy in marriage, anxiety about intermarriage, arranged marriages, severe punishment for adultery, an emphasis on the virtues of work, and higher respect of women. Shared characteristics with Muslims included urban culture, numerous skilled artisans, and interest in philosophy and science.18

........Another interesting cultural interaction that was related directly to religion was the lending of money. The laws of both Christianity and Judaism prohibited people from giving out loans for interest to other members of their own faith. There was no rule about lending money across religions, however, and therefore someone from one religion would often be a broker between two other people of the same religion. Partnerships were formed by Jews, Christians, and Muslims who would invest in each other's ventures and share in the profits. Later, many Christians believed the extremely widespread stereotype of the "thieving Jewish Money-lenders" and, although interest rates were indeed high (about twenty to thirty percent because of the danger of bandit thieves attacking travelers) it is important to note that money lending was never an exclusively Jewish business (the fact that later there were a great many Jewish money-lenders was because this occupation was one of the few from which they were not later restricted).19

........The Catholic kings had a policy of complete tolerance for other races and religions and Alfonso X of Castile, like many other monarchs before the fourteenth century, thought of himself as the "King of the Three Religions," an official position that was necessary considering the diverse population.20 21 Although these Christian kings seemed to have a very enlightened view of Jews, the relationship was similar to that of an owner and his property.22 Jews, who at the highest estimates made up no more than four percent of the population, paid a very high percentage of the taxes. The 1294 tax record for Aragon indicates that Jews paid 22 percent of all collected taxes.23 This obviously made them a valuable "asset" to the King, and it was in his self-interest to protect his "property." Another negative aspect of this relationship was that if rebels staged a revolt, they would attack Jews as a means of attacking the King.24 The superficiality of Alfonso’s attitude was made clear when he turned against two of his chief tax collectors because of a desperate need for money. When Chief Tax-farmer Solomon Ibn Zadok of Toledo died in 1273, all of his property was confiscated by the King. Later Solomon's son, D. Zag de la Maleha, who had become the next Chief Tax-farmer, received orders during a civil war to deliver a very large sum of money to the King's besieged forces. D. Zag's delivery was intercepted by the rebels, and Alfonso responded to this unfortunate occurrence by imprisoning all the Jewish tax-farmers working in Castile and hanging D. Zag, calling him a traitor.25

........Many other thirteenth century kings waffled back and forth on their policies towards Jews. James I of Aragon considered himself an enlightened man and a friend to Jews and, during the greater part of his reign he did grant many benefits to the Jews of his kingdom. However in 1254 (which by no coincidence was the same year that the French King Louis IX returned from a crusade, expelled the Jews from France, and canceled all debts owed to them), James suddenly confiscated directly for the crown any debts owed to Jews in Aragon "for the salvation of our soul."26 James I and Alfonso X probably never saw the inconsistency in their policies; they certainly approved of Jews who contributed greatly to the kingdom’s prosperity as faithful servants of the Crown. "But as the church ceaselessly emphasized, Jews could never be completely trusted, and their transgressions must be sternly punished . . . ."27

........Although it is true that, during most of the time up until the fourteenth century Jews in Spain lived in peace, the constant pressure from Rome to discriminate against Jews, as well as the madness of the Crusades and fanaticism of the Dominican monks, gave Jews a continuing sense of insecurity, and thus many homes were heavily fortified with thick, bolted doors and barred windows.28 The feeling of insecurity was certainly not unfounded, and this fact became more and more apparent in the last two hundred years before the expulsion.

Social Conflicts Appear

........While the Christian armies reconquered more and more Muslim territory, the benefits of a diverse society were forgotten.29 As early as the beginning of the thirteenth century, the climate of tolerance began to disappear while feelings of bigotry in France and Germany "drifted south of the Pyrenees in the wake of the Crusades."30 The single cause of the Reconquista had unified Christians, unfortunately creating a strong ethnocentricity within the culture–to Christians, a true Spaniard could only be a member of their faith, and no other. The occupations that Jews held began to be greatly envied by Christians who resented Jews "for appearing to shirk manual labor and choosing instead professions that would bring them quick, easy profits."31

........Out of this resentment and prejudice came horrific stories and legends. A story was told about a Jewish father that discovered that his son had attended mass with Christian friends. The boy is put in the oven to be cooked alive and only survives because the Virgin Mary comes and rescues him from his father's cruel punishment.32 One of the most popular and grotesque beliefs was the "blood-libel", the accusation that Jews would abduct Christian children, torture and crucify them ritualistically, draining each corpse of its blood (which was supposedly valued as a sacred substance in rituals) and perhaps eating the victim's flesh as a mid-day snack.33 After the "blood-libel", "desecration of the Host" was the next most frequent accusation charged on Jews. The story was that consecrated Hosts, bread wafers that were believed to have been transformed into the true flesh of Christ, were stolen from churches by Jews who would gleefully stab them to make them bleed and boil them to remove their power.34 These stories were passed down for generations and outbreaks of violence against Jews became more and more frequent as the stories came to be believed by the majority of Christians in Europe; many still believe these stories today.35

........Perhaps the single most important event in the rise of Spanish anti-Semitism (and that of many other countries) during the fourteenth century was the advent of bubonic plague, or the Black Death, which killed off a third to a half of the population of Western Europe from 1348 to 1350. Since medieval Europe had nothing close to the medical technology necessary to explain the plague, they needed to blame it on something. The church proclaimed it "a scourge of God," calling on sinners to repent before all was destroyed, and the populace looked for a human cause.36 Their eyes naturally fell upon the Jews–always convenient scapegoats–and a story quickly spread that Jews, plotting with the Muslim enemy, had poisoned the wells in an attempt to murder the whole of Christianity. The mob pointed out that the Jews seemed to have a strong resistance to the sickness and therefore must be guilty, ignoring the fact that the Jews lived in segregated neighborhoods and maintained a higher level of hygiene and sanitation. (Jews actually washed their hands before meals and frequently wore clean clothes, unlike their gentile neighbors!) Large scale massacres of Jews occurred all over Europe, which were new only in Spain where race riots had never been frequent events. Pope Clement VI dismissed the unreasonable accusations and demanded an end to the violence, but the mob continued killing for some time, partly because debts to Jewish money-lenders were canceled if the lenders were killed.37

........Towards the end of the fourteenth century, the Spanish ruling class began to officially discriminate against Jews and Moors. In 1371 the Cortes, the council that passed most laws, approved legislation that required all Jews to wear a round yellow patch over the heart.38 In 1391, a series of massacres (pogroms) stormed through the Jewish quarters of Toledo, Valencia, Barcelona, and Sevilla, completely destroying them. 4,000 people were murdered in Sevilla alone.39 The Dominican Friar Vicente Ferrer embarked on a journey in 1411 with royal support to charge into synagogues all over Spain, denounce Judaism, and demand conversion. His little "crusade" was fairly successful in rural areas, causing many Jews to convert to Christianity.40 A 1412 law prevented Jews and Moors from holding office, owning arms, carrying titles, employing Christians, being employed by Christians, being carpenters, butchers, or tailors, moving to a new house, or eating, bathing, or even talking with Christians. The persecution was carried out in the name of Christ and religious unity, but behind the religious fanaticism was a racial hatred stemming from jealousy and fear.41

........The massacres of 1391 convinced thousands of Jews to convert to Catholicism. Afterwards, continuing persecution increased the rate of conversion during the fifteenth century and, as the Jewish community became permanently weakened, a substantial new class of people developed composed of the New Christians (former Jews or Muslims) also called conversos.42 It is probably true that most of the conversos still practiced Judaism in secret, and the Old Christians (pure Christian descent) as well as the Church suspected as much, calling them "Marranos," or "swine."43

........The New Christians began marrying into the prosperous families of the nobility and by 1490, there were few families, especially in Aragon, that had no Jewish blood. Four of Isabella's bishops and three of her secretaries were from converso families, as was one of her early confessors, Hernando de Talavera. Even Ferdinand himself is thought to have had some Jewish ancestors. Old Christian aristocrats became alarmed when they realized the New Christians were becoming powerful, and they revealed that their prejudice went far beyond religion–the seven hundred years of fighting the infidel Moors made them feel separate and "pure," and challenges to this purity by members of a "despised race," even converted ones, were to them a threat to their high place in society and their very way of life.44

........More terrible pogroms swept through Toledo and Valladolid in 1473, and all conversos were expelled from Córdoba. Old Christians all over Castile and Aragon pressured cities into passing laws that prevented both conversos and Jews from holding office or testifying against Old Christians. The Dominicans certainly did not miss the chance to preach and speak out fanatically against the Marranos and all their horrible sins as heretics. The Spanish Inquisition, which was the Dominicans' major contribution to the affair, will be described later. As always, there were exceptions. Not every Christian denounced the conversos–Alfonso Carillo, Archbishop of Toledo (he was the priest who married Ferdinand and Isabella), favored racial (although not religious) integration. In 1481, he wrote:

"Divisions bring great scandals and schism and divide the seamless garment of Christ, who, as the Good Shepherd, commanded us to love one another in unity and obedience to Holy Mother Church . . . . From which it is obvious how culpable are those who . . . create different lineages, some calling themselves Old Christians and others calling themselves New Christians or Conversos."

Unfortunately, a few fairly enlightened views were not enough to change those of most of Spanish society, which was by then completely enveloped in bigotry and controlled by self-interest.45 So it was even at the time when Ferdinand and Isabella were born, and the solutions they chose to the "problem" of Jews and Marranos, after being raised in the intolerant and hateful atmosphere of fifteenth century Spain (believing along with most everyone else the bloody stories told to them as children), proved disastrous to all those targeted.

Ferdinand, Isabella, and the Inquisition

........Isabella liked to listen to the priests of her realm for spiritual advice and, unfortunately, many of those who spoke to her during her childhood and reign were of the Dominican Order. These priests and monks constantly harangued her to do something about the conversos, whom they thought of as heretics. Tomás de Torquemada was one of her childhood confessors, and he had urged that if she ever became queen, she must "undertake the sacred mission of stamping out heresy." In 1477, the Queen visited Alfonso de Hojeda, prior of the Dominican monastery of St. Paul in Sevilla, and for fifteen months she listened to this vocal fanatic preaching the sins of the heretic Marranos, urging her to take severe action. These two Dominicans probably greatly influenced her in her decision to establish the Inquisition, an institution designed to find Christians who were less than devout and set them right. In the hands of the first appointed inquisitors in 1480 and Grand Inquisitor Torquemada in 1483, however, the Spanish Inquisition (which, unlike previous Inquisitions, was completely independent of Rome) was little more than a mechanism of terror and death for the Marranos, who made up most of the accused.46

........Beginning in Sevilla, the Inquisition delivered an edict saying that anyone who suspected others of heresy should immediately denounce them. The accusation could be made anonymously and, because of this, the first groups of accused heretics were so large that the Inquisition's headquarters had to be moved to a fortress outside the city in order to hold all the prisoners. This process of anonymous accusation was obviously unfair. A citizen could be denounced for any reason without knowing the accuser, and full confession under torture could almost always be obtained.47 The inquisitors defended their system of anonymity, saying that it allowed the poorest citizen to condemn the wealthiest without fear of retribution. The process was highly abused, however, and later became a method of ruining a rival businessman, who would be reduced to a street beggar or worse after being denounced to the Inquisition.48

........Many powerful and influential conversos lived in Sevilla in 1480 and they realized that their power could not save them from racial hatred. Without immediate action, they would lose their homes and businesses. Diego de Susán, one of the wealthiest citizens in Sevilla, rallied the conversos of the city and the surrounding countryside together to create a large store of arms and provisions. They were poised to take control of Sevilla, possibly terminating the Inquisition barely after it had begun, when Diego de Susán's own daughter, la Susana, betrayed them, perhaps fearing for the safety of her Old Christian lover. All those involved in the resistance were arrested and their property confiscated. On February 6, 1481, six prisoners were carried through the city to the first auto-da-fé ("act of faith") of Spain's new Inquisition and burned at the stake after an eloquent speech by the previously mentioned Dominican prior Alfonso de Hojeda.49 A few days later Diego de Susán himself was executed with another large group, and legend says that la Susana died in destitution after writing in her will "that her skull be placed over the door of the house where she had lived a life of shame."50 Diego de Susán's resistance did not just fail, but backfired when the inquisitors decided to set up tribunals all over the country to find and destroy any other groups of "militant heretics," and seven more Dominican inquisitors were appointed.51

........Although the Inquisition was already a terrible instrument of torture and injustice when it began, it was not until 1483, when Tomás de Torquemada was appointed Grand Inquisitor at the age of eighteen, that it reached its full potential.52 He was more than a practitioner; he invented new methods of torture and forced confession, saying that "by breaking down through torture and fire the resistance of the sinner's body, [we are] redeeming his soul from eternal damnation."53 To destroy prisoners psychologically, they were kept completely alone in their cells for months at a time and tortured occasionally until they confessed.54 Torquemada's guidelines continued to be followed after his death in 1498. The next Inquisitor General was Diego de Deza, a Christian man with Jewish ancestry, who followed in his predecessor's footsteps, keeping the Inquisition at the same atrocious level of terror and authority.55

........In the first seven years of the Sevilla tribunal alone, over 700 Marranos were burnt alive and over 5,000 were given lesser punishments after confessing under torture that they had committed the "sin" of heresy by continuing to practice Judaism secretly.56 A smock-like garment called a sanbenito was worn by the condemned and the reconciled during an auto-da-fé. For those who were to be burned (or "relaxed to the secular arm"–the Inquisition did not officially burn any of its victims but instead turned them over to the secular authorities), the sanbenito was black with bright red paintings of demons and hell-fire.57 To be accused of heresy, a converso or even an Old Christian needed only to be observed engaged in one of the following activities: eating with Jews, eating the meat of an animal that was slaughtered in a special way, washing blood off meat, eating or drinking anything that was traditionally Jewish, fasting on any Jewish holiday, wearing clean clothes on the Sabbath, leaving the fire unlit the night before the Sabbath, cleaning a corpse in warm water, or even turning one's own head to the wall when dying.58 It was certain proof of Judaism if a Marrano's children had Jewish names, and thus recent conversos had quite a problem since their children were named when they were Jewish.59 The tendency toward heresy was thought to be inherited with converso blood.60

........After the Inquisition had been running for several years, Torquemada focused his attention on people who were openly non-Christian. He complained to the King and Queen that while he was working to crush heresy among the New Christians, Jews and Muslims could continue to practice their loathsome religions freely.61 Ferdinand and Isabella, who became co-rulers of Castile in 1474 and added Ferdinand's kingdom of Aragon in 1479, seemed at first to have no hatred toward Jews. Until 1492, two Jews held royal positions in their court. Don Abraham Seneor was the chief rabbi of Castile and also the royal tax commissioner for Castile-Aragon. Don Isaac Abrabanel was a leading biblical commentator and worked as a Castilian tax farmer under Seneor. Abrabanel also gathered large loans for the crown in order to finance the fight against the Muslim state of Granada.62 In 1492, the Christian forces captured Granada, the last city in Spain controlled by the Moors, and Ferdinand and Isabella were finally persuaded to take large scale action against the Jews. To "celebrate" their victory in creating a unified Christian Spain, the King and Queen signed the March 31 edict that required all Jews either to leave the country or convert to Christianity by the Ninth of Ab, four months later.63

........The edict was signed in the Alhambra, the spectacular Moorish palace in Granada, and upon the return of the King and Queen to Toledo, don Abraham Seneor and don Isaac Abrabanel pleaded with them to annul the edict of expulsion. Abrabanel offered to cancel the debts that Ferdinand and Isabella owed him for the royal loans he had collected and said they could use even more of his money if they so desired. He was trying to use their greed to his advantage, which might have worked, except at that very moment Torquemada stormed into the royal chamber and threw down a crucifix, yelling, "Judas sold his Master for thirty pieces of silver; you would sell Him again!"64

........In the next four months, almost 150,000 of the 200,000 Spanish Jews left the country, leaving all their property and belongings behind. The rest chose conversion, and many were subjected to the same persecution that Marranos suffered in past years.65 Most of those that chose exile settled in Portugal, but they were allowed only five years of peace after which Manoel the Fortunate, King of Portugal, expelled all Portuguese Jews and Muslims under the terms of his marriage with Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter.66 King Manoel wanted to keep Jews in his country, so he forced as many as possible through a hurried baptism. This new group of Marranos lived peacefully as Jews until the Spanish Inquisition was permitted in 1531 to operate in Portugal, where the last communities of Jews on the Iberian Peninsula were finally driven out (Spanish Muslims soon faced the same choice of exile or conversion after another expulsion edict in 1502).67 68

........Ferdinand and Isabella, along with most of the rest of the Old Christian society, felt that as the Reconquista came to a close, Spain must be united into a people with one ethnic and religious background. Unfortunately, that meant that Jews, Muslims, and conversos were not included. The edicts of expulsion in 1492 and 1502 were to the King and Queen the only plausible solutions to the problems of living in a society consisting of three ethnic groups and three religions.69 This belief that social stability within a kingdom can only be achieved by having one common body of tradition, or being with "one's own kind," is called primordialism, and it continues to plague our societies today, causing segregation of different ethnic groups and genocide of those groups that get in the way of others.70 The loss to the remaining society, in terms of corrupted values and reduced diversity, results in ethical and social stagnation. Religious fanaticism, greed for financial and political power, and the underlying but severe ethnocentricity of the Spanish culture led to the expulsion of the Jews (and later the Muslims) from Spain. The results of Spain's rejection of the ideals of cultural pluralism could later be seen in the treatment of the native peoples of the New World by the conquering Spaniards.71


........1 Melveena McKendrick, Ferdinand and Isabella (New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., 1968), p. 109.

........2 McKendrick, p. 110.

........3 Joan Comay, The Diaspora Story (New York: Random House, 1980), p. 129.

........4 Menahem Mansoor, Jewish History and Thought: An Introduction (Hoboken, New Jersey: KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 1991), p. 183.

........5 Gabriel Jackson, The Making of Medieval Spain (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1972), p. 100.

........6 Mansoor, p. 183.

........7 Mansoor, p. 184.

........8 Mansoor, p. 185.

........9 Mansoor, p. 184.

........10 Comay, p. 130.

........11 Comay, p. 131.

........12 Comay, p. 132.

........13 McKendrick, p. 110.

........14 Jackson, p. 101.

........15 Max I. Dimont, Jews, God and History (New York: Signet, 1962), p. 214.

........16 Jackson, p. 104.

........17 Jackson, p. 102.

........18 Jackson, p. 104.

........19 Jackson, p. 105.

........20 Comay, p. 128.

........21 Jackson, p. 101.

........22 Jackson, p. 102.

........23 Jackson, p. 105.

........24 Jackson, p. 102.

........25 Jackson, p. 107.

........26 Jackson, p. 106.

........27 Jackson, p. 107.

........28 Jackson, p. 104.

........29 McKendrick, p. 111.

........30 Comay, p. 129.

........31 McKendrick, p. 111.

........32 McKendrick, p. 111.

........33 Comay, p. 147.

........34 Comay, p. 148.

........35 McKendrick, p. 111.

........36 Comay, p. 142.

........37 Comay, p. 143.

........38 McKendrick, p. 111.

........39 Salo Wittmayer Baron, A Social and Religious History of the Jews: Volume XIII (New York: Columbia University Press, 1969), p. 21.

........40 Comay, p. 131.

........41 McKendrick, p. 113.

........42 Comay, p. 131.

........43 Comay, p. 134.

........44 McKendrick, p. 113.

........45 McKendrick, p. 114.

........46 McKendrick, p. 114.

........47 McKendrick, p. 116.

........48 McKendrick, p. 117.

........49 McKendrick, p. 120.

........50 Baron, p. 39.

........51 McKendrick, p. 120.

........52 Miroslav Hroch and Anna Skybová, Ecclesia Militans: The Inquisition (Leipzig: Dorset Press, 1988), p. 46.

........53 Baron, p. 41.

........54 Hroch, p. 113.

........55 Baron, p. 43.

........56 Comay, p. 135.

........57 McKendrick, p. 123.

........58 Baron, p. 36.

........59 McKendrick, p. 118.

........60 McKendrick, p. 123.

........61 Comay, p. 136.

........62 Comay, p. 135.

........63 Comay, p. 136.

........64 Comay, p. 136.

........65 Comay, p. 136.

........66 Mansoor, p. 294.

........67 Cecil Roth, A History of the Jews (New York: Schocken Books, 1970), p. 231.

........68 McKendrick, p. 109.

........69 McKendrick, p. 109.

........70 Richard Thompson, Theories of Ethnicity (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989), p. 49.

........71 Jackson, p. 197.


Baron, Salo Whittmayer. A Social and Religious History of the Jews: Volume XIII. New York: Columbia University Press, 1969.

Comay, Joan. The Diaspora Story. New York: Random House, 1980.

Dimont, Max I. Jews, God and History. New York: Signet, 1962.

Hroch, Miroslav, and Anna Skybová. Ecclesia Militans: The Inquisition. Leipzig: Dorset Press, 1988.

Jackson, Gabriel. The Making of Medieval Spain. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1972.

Mansoor, Menahem. Jewish History and Thought: An Introduction. Hoboken, New Jersey: KTAV Publishing House, Inc., 1991.

McKendrick, Melveena. Ferdinand and Isabella. New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., 1968.

Roth, Cecil. A History of the Jews. New York: Schocken Books, 1970.

Thompson, Richard. Theories of Ethnicity. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1989.